Multiple Sclerosis: A Review of The Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Genetics, And Molecular Characteristics


  • Abdulrhman Almadiny Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • Badr Almadiny Blood Bank Department, Jeddah Regional Lab, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Ibrahem Almadini Health Center Hajar, Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia


Autoimmune Disease, Epidemiology, Genetics, Multiple Sclerosis, Pathogenesis


MS is an autoimmune and inflammation-mediated syndrome that causes
neurodegeneration and makes the sufferer disabled and incapacitated. The clinical
patterns and susceptibility to the disease are different in different populations. Since 1990,
The occurrence of MS has risen in various geographic areas, particularly in counties of
low and middle income, imposing significant health care and economic burden. Most
cases of MS are sporadic but 20% are acquired. Familial Multiple Sclerosis (FMS) is
characterized by the presence of at least one affected family member, including those
related by first, second, or third-degree connections to the pro-bands. It is estimated to
have a global prevalence of approximately 12.6%. The prevalence of MS ranges widely
among Arabs and is lower than in Western countries but the rate is expected to increase
over time and thus required the attention of the scientific world. The etiological features
of the disorder are still unknown and extensive genetic level research is still required to
make progress in understanding the causation of the disease. Furthermore, future
investigations should include well-designed clinical trials examining the efficacy and
safety of licorice-derived drugs in MS patients to bridge the gap between preclinical
discoveries and clinical applications. These trials can provide useful insights into the realworld
applicability of licorice-based treatments, perhaps influencing their incorporation
into routine MS treatment procedures. This study will provide insight for future
researchers who are willing to work in the area of medical genetics.