UCP Journal of Engineering & Information Technology 2024-03-18T00:00:00+00:00 Muhammad Amjad Iqbal Open Journal Systems <p>UCP Journal of Engineering and Information Technology (UCP-JEIT) is a multidisciplinary, peer-reviewed, open-access journal jointly published by the Faculty of Engineering and the Faculty of Information Technology &amp; Computer Sciences. The journal is devoted to publishing research in Engineering, Information Technology, and Computer Sciences.</p> <p><strong>ISSN:</strong> 3005-8015 (Online), 3005-8007 (Print)</p> Evaluating the Effectiveness and Resilience of SSL/TLS, HTTPS, IPSec, SSH, and WPA/WPA2 in Safeguarding Data Transmission 2023-12-14T09:16:47+00:00 Zain Tariq Bint e Zainab Muhammad Zunnurain Hussain <p>This research paper focuses on the analysis of network security protocols, which are essential for protecting the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data transmitting over the network. More and more communication protocols developed over the period to provide reliable and effective communication, and for most of them, security was their significant goal. The paper covers a comprehensive overview of different security protocols such as SSL/TLS, HTTPS, IPSec, SSH, and WPA/WPA2, including their working principles and strengths. The study also analyzes the current emerging threats and attacks on the current state of network security and how well the analyzed protocols function to mitigate them. The finding of the paper helps network administrators to ensure the highest level of security for their networks.</p> 2024-03-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 UCP Journal of Engineering & Information Technology Performance Evaluation of MANET Routing Protocols Based on Size and Speed Parameters 2023-12-14T09:13:49+00:00 Amin Ullah Samra Nawazish Jawad Hassan Saddam Hussain Khan Danish Arif Muhammad Usama Sharaf <p>Mobile nodes in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) play a dual role, functioning both as routers and hosts. This dual functionality enables them to receive incoming traffic and direct outgoing traffic. Energy efficiency stands as a critical factor when it comes to routing protocols. It plays a pivotal role in conserving the battery life of nodes involved in routing network traffic. In the scope of this research, we evaluated three routing protocols: TORA, OLSR, and GRP. Our analysis focused on their performance across various key metrics, including throughput, network end-to-end delay, and network load. To validate our findings, we conducted simulations within an office network environment measuring 1000m x 1000m, leveraging the OPNET Modeler 14.5 network simulation tool. The results of our simulations revealed that the OLSR protocol demonstrated the highest network load among the three protocols. In terms of network end-to-end delay and throughput, the OLSR protocol demonstrated superior performance compared to both the GRP and TORA protocols. Conversely, when it comes to network load, the TORA protocol outperformed both the GRP and OLSR protocols. On the other hand, the GRP protocol excelled in comparison to the TORA protocol when considering network end-to-end delay and network throughput.</p> 2024-03-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 UCP Journal of Engineering & Information Technology Studying the Invasion of Drones in Indigenous Areas Using Machine Learning Techniques 2024-01-03T05:41:35+00:00 Samra Nawazish Amin Ullah Jawad Hassan Saddam Hussain Khan Abdul Aziz Riaz Ud Din Muhammad Adeel <p>The prevalence of drones in contemporary times has become widespread, representing a pivotal technological advancement in aviation—characterized by its autonomous, pilot-less nature. However, its predominant application for surveillance and targeted operations, particularly by the United States of America (USA), has sparked vehement criticism due to perceived violations of human rights on a global scale. Especially, Pakistan-like countries have borne the brunt of drone strikes, with the Federally Administered Tribal Areas being the primary target, accounting for over 90% of these attacks. This research delves into the profound impact of drone strikes, focusing on the often-overlooked innocent victims, including women and children, as well as the consequential damage to the affected regions. In this paper, we posit that a classification-based approach offers a more comprehensive and statistically informative means of elucidating patterns inherent in the data. By doing so, we aim to shed light on the effectiveness of targeted killings in the context of counter-terrorism. The proposed approach includes machine learning algorithms, such as ZeroR, J48, Naive Bayes, and OneR that have been employed to meticulously analyze the dataset and unveil hidden patterns. In particular, the J48 algorithm demonstrated exceptional performance, accurately discerning casualties within the standard Kaggle noisy dataset. The Weka tool, known for its advanced capabilities, played a pivotal role in this analysis, handling crucial tasks such as initial pre-processing, numeric to nominal conversion, and replacing missing values. This integrated approach ensures a robust exploration of the dataset, leveraging the strengths of diverse algorithms and sophisticated tools for comprehensive insights. This departure from traditional legal analyses broadens the discourse surrounding drone warfare, emphasizing the importance of data-driven insights in understanding the broader implications of these operations.</p> 2024-03-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 UCP Journal of Engineering & Information Technology Micromobility in Pakistan 2024-01-12T06:45:56+00:00 Muhammad Awais Shafique <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Micromobility is actively being adopted in many cities around the globe. The various personal travel options included in micromobility can contribute to lower congestion, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and improvement in the general well-being of its users. However, travel options falling under micromobility are not very common in Pakistan. This paper explores the several challenges in way of providing a supportive micromobility ecosystem in Pakistan and discusses the steps to be taken for its adoption. It examines the current infrastructure, cultural norms, and government policies present in the country and identifies gaps and areas of improvements for successful integration of micromobility. The introduction of micromobility in Pakistan presents a significant opportunity to promote sustainable and equitable transportation in the country. With the right interventions and policy solutions, Pakistan can create a transportation system that is accessible, safe, and efficient for all its citizens, and pave the way for a more sustainable future.</span></p> 2024-03-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 UCP Journal of Engineering & Information Technology Harvest Link - Blockchain in Agriculture Supply Chain 2024-01-03T05:52:02+00:00 Usman Muhammad Jahangir Alvi Syed Daniyal Ahmed Muhammad Sauood <p>The Agricultural supply chain (ASC) is the backbone of economies around the world, playing a vital role in driving numerous industries and serving as a major stakeholder. The involvement of diverse stakeholders, including farmers, distributors, retailers, and consumers, contributes to the inherent complexity and challenges in managing the supply chain effectively. However, the lack of transparency within the supply chain not only presents challenges but also leads to inefficiencies, wastage, and susceptibility to fraudulent practices. Recognizing these deficiencies, this paper aims to comprehensively address and rectify the shortcomings in the agricultural supply chain. The significance of these issues cannot be overstated, as they have a profound impact on food security, fair trade, and the livelihoods of countless stakeholders. In response to the growing demand for transparency in the sourcing of food products, this paper endeavors to shed light on these critical aspects, fostering improved trust, enhanced accountability, and the assurance of safety and quality in food products for consumers. To effectively tackle the identified deficiencies, the paper proposes the utilization of Blockchain technology as the primary mechanism to establish an immutable ledger for every transaction and product movement, ensuring data integrity and trust without the need for intermediaries. Each stage of the supply chain, from cultivation to distribution, will be recorded in a tamper-proof manner, allowing consumers and stakeholders to effortlessly trace the history of agricultural products. Additionally, the integration of AI is proposed to analyze blockchain data, providing real-time insights and predictions to further enhance transparency. While acknowledging potential barriers such as technical challenges, education, and government policies, this fusion of blockchain and AI stands as a promising technology to create a robust, transparent, and accountable agricultural supply chain. Efforts will be made to address these challenges and foster widespread adoption among farmers and stakeholders, realizing the envisioned positive impact on the agricultural supply chain.</p> 2024-03-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 UCP Journal of Engineering & Information Technology